The observed vegetation-substrate patterns generally support Hopper's characterisation of two general landscape types: Hence YODFELs are characterised by relatively fertile soils whose nutrient capital has not been greatly depleted by leaching and which may undergo frequent disturbance related to fluvial or maritime events or mass movement. Their flora is dominated by recently evolved species with long-distance dispersal capabilities, propensity for colonisation, extensive distributions, generalist nutritional and reproductive biology, and tolerance of disturbance Hopper The YODFEL profile fits many species of the grassy vegetation formations and subformations, which occur on the more fertile substrates e.
It also generally fits a large portion of the flora that characterises the three wetland formations, which may generally be viewed as occupying resource-rich sinks within regional landscapes Keith In contrast, OCBILs are characterised by a diversity of ancestral species lineages with limited dispersal and colonisation capability, often with restricted distributions, specialised nutritional and reproductive biology, prominent sclerophylly and limited resilience to physical disturbance.
The OCBIL profile describes many of the sclerophyll plant species that characterise substrates associated with impoverished soils e. Both landscape types appear to extend throughout the humid - arid climatic gradient of the region.
It is noteworthy that much of rainforest flora does not readily fit either profile. Many of the taxa occupy climatically buffered environments and belong to ancient lineages that generally lack recent radiation and have suffered numerous extinctions Crisp et al.
Yet their habitats are not the most nutrient-impoverished nor very ancient landscapes and many of the taxa are widely dispersed with large distributions, some are ready colonisers. The nutritional properties of geological substrates therefore define a fundamental basis for evolution of Australian biota and retain a distinctive signature on the present-day distribution of vegetation fonnations and assemblages in the region of south-eastern Australia examined here. Given their strong influence on contemporary vegetation patterns, geological substrates which, with few exceptions, are essentially fixed landscape features over millenial time scales, appear to impose significant constraints 18 Proc.
Approximately two-thirds of the floristic variation remained unexplained in the direct gradient analysis. Part of this unexplained variation may include unrepresented influences of soils and climate. For example, substrate types were defined very broadly and often encompass considerable heterogeneity, not only in the complexes of rocks juxtaposed within them, but in the mineral composition and texture and structure of soils produced across catenary sequences of the landscape.
The movement and availability of water across the landscape is also an important source of variation that is not fully represented by the climatic variables included in the current analysis. This essential resource almost certainly accounts for some of the unexplained floristic variation, particularly in the wetland component of the biota.
Fire regimes are also likely to account for a fraction of the unexplained variation, as a lack of suitable spatial data precluded any consideration of them in the analysis.
Fire regimes have been identified as driving evolutionary forces in Australia and other continents Bond , Bowman et al. Any remaining variation in floristic composition of south-eastern Australia is mostly attributable to sampling error and inherent spatial autocorrelation, as time lags in vegetation dynamics and limited dispersal processes impose an inherently clustered spatial structure on the composition of biota in the landscape. Map-based approach to ecological analysis The map-based approach employed in this study has both strengths and limitations.
A major advantage is that it permits a balanced stratified random sampling design across the entire study area. This overcomes a significant constraint for analyses based on field samples over such a large region - the available data are inevitably skewed and non- randomly distributed across the landscape to varying degrees.
A complementary analysis based on field samples may nonetheless be profitable, as it permits a more direct location-based exploration of vegetation- environment relationships, and hence exploration of finer-scale patterns than can be represented on sub- continental maps.
A potential limitation of the map-based approach is that imprecision in the boundaries of both maps may have resulted in some combinations of vegetation and substrate types that do not occur in nature, as well as a margin of error in estimated frequencies of association. Non-concurrence of soil, soil parent material and bedrock could occur, for example, where there is significant lateral movement of sediment downslope from its origin.
This promotes a tendency for the fidelity of vegetation types to substrate types to be under-estimated i. To offset such effects, frequencies in Figs. A second limitation of the map- based approach is that it does not allow relationships between floristics and environmental data to be explored directly. This was because the species and substrate matrices were based on descriptive data averaged across the mapped range of each unit, rather than location-specific estimates.
Thirdly, depending on the methods employed to generate source maps of for corresponding areas, the spatial data for vegetation and geology may not be independent throughout the mapped area. For example, in some cases geological boundaries may have been used as proxies for vegetation mapping and conversely remote sensing of vegetation may have been used to identify geological boundaries.
Such non-independence may inflate map- based correlation between vegetation and geology. However, such effects are mitigated by the use of multi-criteria in remote sensing and modelling, only some of which will be non-independent proxies, as well as varying levels of field sampling to directly verify mapped units. Independent reclassification of the vegetation and geological maps further reduced any non-independence.
While these methodological issues limited the resolution of relationships that could be examined, the analytical methods employed were sufficiently sensitive to detect major influences of geological substrates on vegetation that, collectively, appeared to be stronger than, and largely independent of climatic influences. Chris Simpson assisted with compiling the spatial data for analysis. Mike Hutchinson and Tingbao Xu prepared the climate surfaces under a collaborative research project funded by the Australian Research Council LP The geological history of the Australian Howcring plants.
American Jt urnal of Science Series 4 The vegetation and pastures of western New South Wales. The edaphic factor in plant ecology with a special note on soil phosphates. Soil phosphate and its role in moulding segments of the Australian ilora and vegetation, with special reference to xeromorphy and sclcrophylly.
Fire in the Earth System. Large parts of the world are brown or black: A different view on the 'Green World' hypothesis. Journal of Vegetation Science Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science Radiation of the Australian flora: Phylogenetic biome conservatism on a global scale.
Soil and vegetation relationships in the lower south-east of South Australia, a study in ecology. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia The plant life of Western Australia south of the tropics. The ecology of the upper Williams River and Harrington Tops districts. The eucalypt forests, and general discussion. Valuing and Conserving Abiotic Nature. The status of nitrogen in the Hawkesbury sandstone soils and their plant communities in the Sydney district:.
The signiiicance and level of nitrogen. The evolution of the Australian flora: In "Flora of Australia", vol. Plant and Soil 2 In Data Assimilation Systems, J. Bureau of Meteorology Res. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Fire and the Miocene expansion of C-4 grasslands. Ocean shores to desert dunes: Vegetation of the Eden region. Species composition, diversity and structure. Journal of Vegetation Science 1: A protocol for assessment and integration of vegetation maps, with an application to spatial data sets from south-eastern Australia.
Plant mineral nutrition in ancient landscapes: Plant and Soil Mechanisms for enhancing nutrient uptake in plants, with particular reference to mediterranean South Africa and Western Australia.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. An ecological study of the flora of Mount Wilson. Habitat factors and plant response. The ecology of the central coastal area of New South Wales.
The environment and general features of the vegetation. Surface geology of Australia 1: Geoscience Australia, Canberra, http: Native vegetation of southeast NSW: Coastal Quaternary geology - north and south coast of New South Wales.
Aluminium accumulation in the Australian-New Guinea flora. Australian Journal of Botany 2: Percentage of random points in each vegetation class on each geological sub- strate type see Keith for description of classes. The Tasmanian geoconservation database: The Tasmanian Geoconservation Database TGD is a source of information about earth science features, systems and processes of conservation significance in Tasmania.
It evolved when a number of sources were compiled as a single geoconservation digital dataset as part of the National Estate component of the 1 Commonwealth-Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement. The latest version of the TGD version 7 was published in and lists some sites ranging in scale from individual rock outcrops and cuttings that expose important geological sections, to landscape-scale features that illustrate the diversity of Tasmania's geomorphic features and processes.
The TGD is accessible to the public through Departmental websites. It is used as a planning tool in land management and in assessing development proposals at various scales.
Under Tasmania's three major environmental codes of practice, the TGD must be consulted and certain actions are prescribed where a TGD site is present. Manuscript received 22 November 20 1 0, accepted for publication 1 6 March It is comprised of islands covering 68, square kilometres of which the main island occupies 62, square kilometres.
Within this relatively small area lies an enormous range of geodiversity. There are geological units from every one of the 12 major periods of earth history from the Precambrian to the Holocene spanning some 4, million years.
Geologically, it could be described as a microcosm of eastern Australia, with additional distinctive Tasmanian elements, such as extensive dolerite intrusions associated with the break-up of Gondwana. Landforms in Tasmania are also very diverse and include: Soil types vary across the state and are controlled by the bedrock and a range of soil forming processes.
In short, Tasmania is a very geodiverse state. Given the geodiverse nature of Tasmania, perhaps it is no surprise that Tasmanian earth scientists have played key roles in the relatively recent field of Geoconservation Dixon , Gray and Sharpies Houshold and Shaiples provide a history of geoconservation in Tasmania.
Sharpies defined the terms geoconservation and geodiversity as follows: Geoconservation is the identification and conservation of geodiversity for its intrinsic, ecological or heritage values. Geodiversity is the natural range diversity of geological bedrock , geomorphological landform and soil features, assemblages, systems and processes. These definitions have been adopted in Tasmania and the concepts of geoconservation and geodiversity are considered an integral part of nature conservation within Tasmanian land management authorities.
With the recognition of geoconservation in Tasmania, a tool to assist in the management of Tasmania's significant geoconservation features was required and the Tasmanian Geoconservation Database TGD evolved. Details of the TGD, its history, structure and uses are described below. There are a number of different approaches to managing information about geoconservation values within other Australian States, however it is beyond the scope of this paper to assess or compare these.
This process enabled the compilation of a single digital database of significant geoconservation sites across Tasmanian. In generating the list of sites, a number of documents already listing geoconservation values across Tasmania as a whole or dealing with specific regions of the state were consulted.
The earliest of which dated back to , when the Geological Society of Australia published a report on Geological Monuments of Tasmania - a descriptive list of fifty or so geological features and landforms Eastcote A number of subsequent geoheritage inventories produced by the Parks and Wildlife Service and the then Forestry Commission in the s formed a significant resource in compiling the initial database.
Table 1 lists key inventories referenced as part of this process. The RFA process led to a database with geoconservation sites. The then Department of Primary Industries and Water took responsibility for managing the database in and established an expert panel see Listing Process below to advise on the Hsting of sites. In a summary version of the TGD was first published on the web establishing it as a standard reference for planning and land management within Tasmania Eberhard and Hammond The latest version of the TGD version 7 was published in and lists some sites.
Further development of the TGD, and the 28 Proc. These fields are in- tended to illustrate those elements of the site which are significant and are not used in a purely descrip- tive manner. In classifying sites, additional types are permitted if the listed ones do not provide a relevant option. A program to transfer all TGD data onto a restructured Oracle database is currently underway see Future Directions below.
The database comprises a number of fields that describe various attributes of the sites. Dixon and Duhig and Sharpies describe the fields more fully. A separate spatial layer is attached to each site. Many of the fields are simple identification or broad descriptive fields e.
ID code, GIS code. Coordinate description, Coordinates, Size, Physical form of site etc and are generally self explanatory. Sites are primarily classified into geology, geomorphology and soil types and are further subdivided as shown in Table 2.
These fields are intended to illustrate those elements of the site which are significant and are not used in a purely descriptive manner. A site may have multiple entries where it is considered significant for more than one type or sub type.
Significance, level, age, sensitivity, degradation and conservation fields are common to each of the geology, geomorphology and soils types or sub types. Each listed site is assigned a significance level on a scale that includes world, Australia, Tasmania, region, or local. These are described by Sharpies The sensitivity field is a number that gives a general indication of the kinds of impacts that would degrade the value of the site. The scale is roughly linear on a scale of 1 to 10 following Kieman 1 A site with a sensitivity of 1 is very sensitive to damage, while a site with a sensitivity of 10 is robust such as large regions whose geoconservation values reside essentially in their large scale form.
For all sites there is an overall significance and sensitivity field that encapsulates the most significant and most sensitive aspects of the site. A limited number of sites within the database are listed as restricted and specific site information is not available to the general public for these sites. Such sites are very sensitive and vulnerable to Proc.
Typically localised fossil orgemstone sites fall within this class. When a web-based spatial search is done on an area where such sites occur a message will appear to inform the user that a restricted site is located in the search area and to contact DPIPWE.
Public access to the database through DPIPWE websites provides access to spatial information and limited site textual information. The Department also provides full copies of the database to interested parties typically Government agencies or large private land managers and consultants under a standard licence agreement. Listing process Any person can nominate a site for consideration for listing on the TGD or propose an amendment to an existing TGD site.
Proposals to add, delete or amend sites are assessed by an independent scientific panel. There are currently fourteen members. The group generally meets annually to consider nominations and amendments. The criteria are general and provide scope for considering a broad range of values, including the more traditional geological reference sites e.
The expert panel validates site nominations and provides scientific rigour to the listing process. Natural features exposed artificially e. Degraded sites may be listed provided they maintain part or all of their relevant geoconservation values. The assessment will consider the georegional context where appropriate. The listing criteria emphasise representativeness - the degree to which a site encapsulates characteristic elements of Tas- mania's geodiversity - in order to ensure that good examples of even common features are considered.
The intent here is to ensure that commonplace features do not ultimately become rare through lack of recognition that they too contribute to geodiversity. Further work is required to develop appropriate classificatory frameworks for geodiversity to implement this goal in a comprehensive way. The listing status of new sites goes through the following stages: These sites are not included in published versions of the database. Sites under consideration are included in published versions of the TGD.
Implications of TGD listing The database is a resource for anyone with an interest in conservation and the environment, however, the principal aim is to make information on sites of geoconservation significance available to land managers in order to assist them manage these values. The TGD is used extensively in land use planning within Tasmania. Under present Tasmanian law, the TGD has no statutory basis and geodiversity generally lacks statutory protection comparable to that applicable to threatened species or Aboriginal heritage for example, which cannot be interfered with without authority, irrespective of the tenure of the land.
Explicit legal protection for geodiversity is restricted to Crown reserves managed under the National Parks and Reserves Management Act , which establishes the conservation of 'geological diversity' as a statutory management objective for reserves under the Act evidently the term 'geological diversity' was adopted in drafting the legislative because 'geodiversity' was not defined in the Macquarie Dictionary.
However, the Act indicates an essentially identical meaning for geological diversity: Under s4 of the National Parks and Reserved Land Regulations , it is an offence to 'interfere with, dig up, cut up, collect or remove any sand, gravel, clay, rock or mineral or any timber, firewood, humus or other natural substance' or to 'remove, damage or deface any rock, stalactite, stalagmite or other formation in a cave'.
Notwithstanding the lack of broader statutory protection, sites listed in the TGD are subject to constraints under a variety of administrative processes. Of particular importance are three key State Codes of Practice: These documents specify acceptable standards of environmental practice during forest operations, mineral exploration and mining and reserve management respectively.
They require development proponents to consult the TGD and seek expert advice on protection requirements where listed sites are present. The State Environment Protection Authority has produced guidelines to assist proponents prepare development proposals and environmental management plans for developments classified as Level 2 activities under Tasmania's Environmental Management and Pollution Control Act Some local government planning authorities require development proponents to address the potential presence of TGD sites on land subject to planning applications.
In addition to formal requirements of this kind, the TGD has become a standard reference in virtually all contexts requiring consideration of environmental effects in Tasmania, ranging from major projects of State significance to farm dams to local government planning schemes.
Its success in this regard evidently reflects growing awareness that geodiversity underpins ecosystem processes generally and must be considered alongside biodiversity in conservation and sustainable land management initiatives. A limitation of the database is that the TGD lists sites of known significance, but is not based on a comprehensive State-wide inventory of geoconservation values, and the absence of identified values at a particular location may reflect gaps in the database rather than as conclusive evidence that geoconservation values are not present.
Most systematic geoconservation surveys that have been conducted to date have been based on public land based around land management boundaries see Table 1. Sites Currently there are sites listed on the TGD version 7. The distribution of these sites is shown in Figure 1. Sites vary in size from small individual rock outcrops and fossil sites less than one hectare, to large landscape sites of several hundred thousand hectares.
The three largest sites are the: Distrihution oi Tasmanian Ceoconscrvation Database listed sites version 7. World significant sites listed on the Tasmanian Geoconservation Database version 7. Many sites overlap one another and the total area of the state covered by TGD listed sites is about 4,, ha or some 60 percent of Tasmania.
The western half of the state has a greater density of TGD listed sites. This is due in part to the more complex geology to the west and also reflects a bias in previous geoconservation inventories that have largely been confined to public lands Table 1 , with the largest state reserves e. Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area located in the west of the state. The west also contains a number of the very large landscape scale individual TGD sites.
Quaternary sites account for some forty per cent of listed sites. Twenty percent of sites are of Tertiary age and Triassic, Devonian, Cambrian and Precambrian sites each comprise approximately five percent of the total. Levels of significance have been assigned to most sites 27 are listed as unknown with 15 per cent of sites considered significant at a local level, 30 percent at a regional level, 35 percent at a Tasmanian level, 12 percent at an Australian level and 3 percent at the world level.
The 35 world significant sites listed on the TGD are shown in Table 3. Detailed notes on a few of these sites follow by way of example of the type of information stored on the TGD. The New River Undisturbed Fluvial and Karst systems TGD site situated roughly halfway along the south coast of Tasmania is considered a site of world significance figure 2.
It includes the entire New River drainage basin from Federation Peak source to Prion Beach river mouth , including the Salisbury River tributary catchment basin. It is the largest complete source-to- sea fluvial geomorphic system in Tasmania that is entirely mantled by old growth forest, is undisturbed by contemporary human activities including land clearance, roads or walking tracks, and shows no evidence for late Holocene disturbance to fluvial processes due to former Aboriginal activity Sharpies The New River fluvial system is considered outstanding as the largest undisturbed complete source - to - sea, temperate maritime climate, fluvial geomorphic system in Australia, and as such is probably comparable to the best examples globally.
The presence within the undisturbed catchment of extensive undisturbed karst landform systems is an additional geomorphic value of outstanding significance at a global level. EBERHARD The fluvial and karst geomorphic systems of the New River Basin constitute benchmark geomorphic systems of outstanding universal scientific and intrinsic value by virtue of their extent and undisturbed geomorphic processes, and were assessed to be of outstanding universal value World Heritage significance in their own right by Sharpies This is a large area covering much of western Tasmania and isolated pockets across other parts of the state.
It covers a combined area of nearly , ha. It is the most extensive organosol terrain in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere. Various geological types are covered, but the best development is on infertile, siliceous substrates. The blanket bogs developed in response to high precipitation, high humidity, and low evaporation, similar to other temperate maritime areas such as Ireland.
The conservation values of the site relate to the total extent and size of the organosol terrain. The site also contains various significant component features including peat mounds, subfossils and palaeosols.
The site is a shore platform and includes a section of Cambrian rocks, including sediments sandstone, siltstone, dolomite and mixtite , pyroclastics and lavas flows and pillows. Pillows indicate seafloor volcanism and are spectacular, with individual pillows and flows visible in plan and section. The mixtite, once thought to be a tillite, is now considered to have a non-glaciogenic density flow origin.
More recent studies indicate that the site consists of superb coastal exposures of the Late Neoproterozoic Grassy Group, including glacial deposits of the Marinoan ice age, 'cap dolostone', shale, peperites and pillow lavas tholeiitic and picritic , and petrologically unusual felsic intrusives. Future directions As noted above, DPIPWE is currently in the process of restructuring the existing database and combining both the textual and spatial data into a single database on Oracle software, to be housed within the Department's Natural Values Atlas, a web- based product for publishing information on natural values.
A number of the fields of the database reflect the fact that the TGD was developed over a decade ago as part of the Regional Forest Agreement process and with developments in geoconservation principles and practice since the TGD was first developed a number of changes to the database are proposed.
Some of these are related to increased software capacity and functionality while other changes are more fiindamental to database fields. The sensitivity and classification fields are likely to see the most changes. The new proposed sensitivity ratings will be related to specific activities or threats and for each site there will be a number of ratings depending on the proposed activity compared to the existing database that has a generalised sensitivity rating based on a roughly linear scale.
This will enable more meaningful assessments across a broader range of activities, reflecting the expanded use of the TGD in assessing developments across a range of land tenure and land use settings. The second field where a major change is proposed is the classification field.
Currently sites are classified according to categories applied during the RFA based on earUer work by Dixon Despite its then innovative nature, it is no longer considered adequate for present purposes and a new classificatory system has been developed and trialled.
It is expected that this will greatly improve the functionality of the TGD and enable enhanced searching functionality. The new software will also enable site nominations to be entered on-line, with various innovations to ensure more consistent and complete data entry. Once sites have been assessed by the TGDRG and approved by DPIPWE a new version of the database will be available to users directly and not as is the current practice of having to wait several months for new versions to be issued.
Users of the new database will also be able to see a more comprehensive range of information relating to sites and it is hoped over time to expand this information to include photos, site condition reports and other information.
It is envisaged the restructured database and operating system will facilitate its use as a standard plaiming reference, while freeing up existing staff resources to systematically survey and review sites based on geo themes or the new classificatory system to enhance the TGD. Access to the revised database will be through the Natural Values Atlas portal at www.
Report to Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. A report to Forestry Tasmania. Rocks and hard places: Forest Practices News 8 2 , Diversity within geodiversity, underpinning habitats in New South Wales volcanic areas.
One component, Cenozoic volcanic rocks, includes eroded basaltic fields, some representing shield volcanoes with central cores of silicic rocks. These shields result from deep geodynamic causes and increase in age, size and degree of erosion northwards giving systematic habitat variations. The northern Tweed structure mya exhibits lava aprons, erosional caldera rims, basement valley floors and an isolated central intrusive peak, whereas the southern Canobolas structure mya retains a general shield profile.
There, lavas form an incised plateau rimmed by valleys and escarpments. Similar lava fields occur in other parks and reserves, e. A marine park at Lord Howe Island lies on a submarine plateau cut into a 7 mya basaltic volcano. The volcanic landscapes provide scenic recreational parks and platforms for habitat studies, aboriginal history, geo-education and geo-tourism. Manuscript received 1 5 November , accepted for publication 20 April 20 1 1.
The different units have been subjected to a range of erosional events since the break-up of eastern Gondwana Scheibner ; Branagan and Packham ; Veevers One component that plays a prominent role within many National Parks, forestry and conservation reserves is Cenozoic volcanic rocks.
This stems from their relatively widespread distribution, particularly in eastern NSW, and contrasting erosional forms and soil development given by silicic and basaltic lithologies within them Sutherland Photographic images will illustrate a range of these landforms and habitats that exist within their precincts. It is hoped that this survey will stimulate more detailed biological studies within these linked habitats and allow further assessments of these areas for geo-heritage values, potential geo- education themes and geo-tourist activities.
Brief descriptions of these volcanic features within the main NSW parks and preservation areas Explore Australia Publishing incorporate new dating on the rocks and some unpublished data. Updated information on the national parks, reserves, conservation areas and forestry reserves can be accessed on a range of websites, e.
Volcanic activity would have ranged from relatively calm effusions and lava fountaining, through more continuous gas blasting of larger ejected blocks and in some cases more extreme explosive activity forming towering Plinian-style eruptive columns Parfitt and Wilson , Lava flows ranged from blocky to ropy forms that could encase internal drainages of lava and extend into long lava flows Cashman et al.
As in Hawaii, some of the volcanoes developed large shields over deep magma chambers Kauhikau et al. Such volcanos are called central volcanoes in eastern Australia and the Tasman Sea; in similar fashion to their Hawaiian and other counterparts they show a progressive increase in age away from a deep fixed mantle 'hot spot', as the overlying plate moved across the melting zone Duncan and McDougall ; Vasconcelos et al. These linear chains of central volcanoes show some gaps and bends in their paths, which are related to further deep geodynamic processes or crustal collisions Sutherland ; Knessel et al.
In inland NSW, several minor volcanoes formed of a potassic lava leucitite also formed a linear age chain related to Australia's northward movement Cohen et al. Central volcano fields black areas are named as major centres inland, bold italics; coastal, non-italics and are shown in relation to a present East Australian hotspot position. The dia- gram is adapted from Cohen et al.
The majority of volcanoes in eastern Australia are basalt-only lava fields. These volcanoes are less clearly related to Australia's northward plate motion and were erupted in sporadic bursts from c.
The main New South Wales volcanic fields discussed in this paper show differences in age distribution between the central volcanoes and basalt lava fields Fig.
General ages of basalt lava fields and central volcanoes in NSW based on K-Ar dating and the relationship of the central volcano trend to past plate motions of eastern Australian from 90 mya to the present are depicted in Fig. The contrast in the compositional ranges for typical rock types found in central and basaltic lava field sequences is illustrated using two examples from northern NSW Table 1. Its growth is now dated as at least Progressive erosion of the original structure Willmott , has reduced its landscape to 1 remnant basaltic lava aprons on its northern, western and southern sides, 2 escarpments where an 'erosional' caldera occupies the valley floors of the Tweed River systems Fig.
The highest remnant lies at 1 1 75 m asl and the flows extend to below sea level. Tomewin Rock on the NSW border is a coarse rhyolite agglomerate that seems to represent an initial violent phase of the Tweed Volcano Willmott 20 The basaltic apron does not extend south into the Alstonville-Ballina area where older mya flows are exposed K-Ar dating; Cotter Mount Warning is also named 'WoUumbin' an aboriginal Proc.
The Belmore central volcano is outlined by a box to indicate its unusual silicic nature. The diagram is modified from Sutherland et al. One elder source maintains the peak and adjacent caldera was known as 'Walambing Momoli' by the Ngarakwal people, which described its silhouette as a scrub turkey and its nest Boileau The geology, characteristic land forms, typical soils and vegetation regimes of these areas are listed for the North Coast subregions www.
Age K-Ar -Latitude plots for NSW basaltic fields filled spaces , central volcanoes filled circles , leucitite fields filled triangles , zircon fission track eruptive reset ages crosses and pro- gressive age trends arrows. The diagram is adapted from Sutherland Note that the Central volcano trend arrow would differ slightly in position using Ar-Ar dating open circles trend.
The cen- tral volcano age trend arrow head is related to a present East Australian plume line positions at mya 0 Ma line , shown in the right hand side map. Plate movement map showing past plume line positions coloured circles with tracks reconstructed at increasing 10 mya intervals northwards from mya.
The past positions are based on an Indian-Atlantic Ocean hotspot reference frame I ; one track purple circles is based on a Pacific hotspot reference frame for comparison Maria Seton, University of Sydney, plate movement program. It has particular interest in representing a transition between northern tropical and southern temperate faunal regions.
The Lost Wilderness FR within the area includes over 60 threatened plant species. Nightcap NP with its eroded basalt and rhyolite landscape includes significant faunas such as the little-bent winged bat, woompoo finit dove, masked owl, Stephens banded snake and red legged pademelon, while Whian Whian SCA within the park protects quoll, koala and platypus habitats.
Cook Island AR incorporates a basalt pedestal as an important breeding ground for migratory birds and protects surrounding off shore marine reef communities. Main Range-Focal Peak Volcanoes This extended volcanic complex 80 x 80 km west of Tweed volcano is largely exposed in Qld where the youngest basalt cap lies at 1 m asl Stevens and Willmott , , but its most southern basaltic and silicic parts overlap into NSW Thompson The Focal Peak volcano is overlapped by the Tweed lavas but rhyolite plugs assigned to it extend south to Nimbin Willmott The Ar-Ar ages for the Qld sector range from The Nimbin Rocks are rhyolite peaks that mark a sacred aboriginal site named after 'Nyimbunji', a ruler of supernatural powers Tacon Toonumbar NP, with peaks such as Dome Mountain, contains World Heritage listed rainforests, where unlogged tree species have been compared with those in surrounding logged areas Kariuki et al.
The habitats provide protection for threatened animals such as the sooty owl, red-legged pademelon and yellow-tailed glider. Richmond Range NP, which incorporates peripheral basalt flows from Focal Peak Volcano, includes the World Heritage listed Cambridge Plateau and holds an astounding diversity of flora and fauna, with many rare and endangered species.
Erosional features developed on older central volcanoes, a Border Ranges escarpment, Tweed Volcano, b The Mount Warning intrusive complex, from south western lava apron, c Governor Bluff, Nandewar Volcano, d Sawn Rocks with columnar jointing , Nandewar Volcano, e High altitude per- spective of Ebor Volcano partially eroded on the eastern side, forming escarpment modified from Cohen Bolmorc Volcano riiis small central volcano 15 x 20 km , north east of the Clarence River and cast of the escarpment, is predominantly silicic in nature without significant remnants of a main basaltic apron Sutherland ct al.
The lack of basalts is unlikely to represent an crosional event, as only one basalt dyke post- silicic was found in the eroded interior. Three silicic rocks are dated at The highest summit lies at m asl and the lowest remnants lie at c. Mount Neville NR www. Limited Ar-Ar dating gives ages of c.
In contrast to the Tweed volcano, much of the central silicic eruptive super structure remains, reaching m asl Fig. The volcanic landforms include outstanding examples of tiered lava terraces, such as Lindsay Rocks, a spectacular set of circular dykes at Mount Yalludundida and a superb example of cooling joints in silicic lava at Sawn Rocks 3d.
Mount Kapatur NP is foremost among Australian conservation areas for the range of vegetation climes that ascend its volcanic slopes over such a short distance. The varied habitats protect a diverse range of plant communities and threatened species of bats, birds, wallabies, quoUs and a unique pink slug.
The preserved biological communities exhibit both western slopes and tableland affinities within the area and overlaps between both northern and southern species distributions. Ebor-Dorrigo Volcano This volcano 40 x 60 km straddles the present escarpment, producing striking topographic differences across its eroded structure from its high point at m Fig.
The volcano formed between 1 mya Ar-Ar dating; Ashley et al. Only the western and northern basaltic aprons show substantial preservation, leaving a decapitated intrusive complex in its eroded centre Fig. A basalt cap at Andersons Sugarloaf c. This prominent peak marked a sacred aboriginal initiation site Kempsey Heritage Inventory; www. The New England NP encompasses volcanic relicts left by escarpment retreat under erosion by the developing Bellingen, Nambucca and Macleay river systems.
Guy Fawkes NP includes the west flowing plateau drainage, now entrenched in the basalt apron at Ebor Falls. The rich basalt soils and wet climate support an exceptional biodiversity. Snow gum woodland, forest and heath on the high plateau pass into towering eucalypt forests and lush rainforest on the slopes. Warrumbungle Volcano A central intrusive complex features in this volcano 50 x 80 km , where erosion has exposed spectacular examples of flows, dykes, plugs and domes Fig.
These showcase a wide spectrum of alkaline rocks Duggan and Knutson ; Duggan et al. Several Ar-Ar dates indicate that the structure developed from 18 to 15 mya Cohen et al. Studies of minerals in the rocks reveal a complex evolution of subsilicic to silicic lavas tapped from deeper mantle and higher crustal chambers Duggan ; Ghorbani and Middlemost The capping flows reach a high point at 1 m asl and the eroded intrusive complex is readily accessible in Warrumbungle NP Whitehead Peripheral basalt flows mark former radial drainages and descend onto the surrounding plains.
Warrumbungle NP, although containing similar volcanic rocks and features to Kaputar NP, shows subtle differences in its landfomis and biodiversity to its northern counterpart. The complex incisions within the volcanic edifice produce many diverse microclimates and habitats.
Marsupial species abound and include the threatened brush-tailed wallaby. Erosional features developed on younger central volcanoes, a View across eroded intrusive core, Warrumbungle Volcano, b Silicic plugs and dykes, Warrumbungle Volcano, c Basalt Plateau, Comboyne Volcano, d Big Nellie silicic plug, Comboyne Volcano, e Silicic summit from edge of basalt apron, Canobolas Volcano.
Comboyne Volcano This volcano 25 x 35 km is preserved as a dissected plateau beside the main escarpment, centred near the town of Comboyne Pain and Oilier Lower basalt flows are capped by silicic flows between c. To the southeast, lower basalts and a trachyte outcrop at Mount Juhle and fiirther south silicic intrusives continue as far as Wingham down to c. Silicic units give Ar-Ar dates from T Graham and H.
The name Comboyne is derived from an aboriginal word for kangaroo. The plateau-escarpment connection in this volcanic area provides complex habitats. Corrabakh NP is an important area for many rare, threatened and endangered plant species, with some lying at their southern limits, while the plugs at Big Nellie support eucalypt species at unusually low altitudes.
Endangered animals include the bush curlew and the giant barred frog. Canobolas Volcano This small shield 30 x 50 km largely retains a compact cone-like profile Fig.
Its geomorphic features, ranges in basaltic and silicic rocks and the soils are described by Pogson and Watkins and Chan Some Ar-Ar dating suggests construction from The mountain name comes from the Wirudyri aboriginal words 'Gaahna Bulla' meaning two shoulders, which describes the two main peaks of 'Old Man Canobolas' and 'Young Man Canobolas' in the eroded volcano. Mount Canobolas SCA, located on an isolated rocky 'island' rising from surrounding plains, forms an important moist micro-climate habitat for plant and animal communities.
Its outcrops host a variety of mosses and lichens, including endangered lichen communities. The mountain supports snow gum sub- alpine woodlands, including the threatened endemic Eucalyptus canobolas. It is described here with the central volcanoes as part of an age- progressive oceanic volcanic chain Mortimer et al.
It is largely basaltic, without observed silicic components, but most of the structure Fig. Only part of its former caldera lava-filling now stands above sea level and reaches up to asl Thompson et al. The K-Ar dating suggests a 6. The Lord Howe Island State MP, gazetted in , and the Lord Howe Island Commonwealth Waters NP, proclaimed in , cover several specific areas on the bevelled submarine platform on the volcano, which are presently under revised management arrangements www.
Studies of the offshore marine platform recently revealed that a much larger fringing coral reef existed around the Island prior to growth of the present reef since 7 kya Woodroffe et al. The basalts range from alkaline nephelinites, basanites, alkali basalts, hawaiites, mugearites into subalkaline transitional basalts, olivine tholeiites, quartz tholeiites types O'Reilly and Zhang ; Vickery et al.
Lavas in the central New England field 70 X km reach elevations over m asl, show a wide age range mya and include alkaline and subalkaline basalts Vickery et al. The exposures are largely devoted to pastoral and gem mining pursuits sapphires and zircon and only support limited nature reserves Glen Innes-Guyra basalts, www.
A feature of some basalt fields is their growth by repeated eruptions over an extended period, e. This aspect of 'hydra-head' growth through progressive cut back of earlier volcanoes and subsequent replacement during the eruptive history is illustrated for the North Barrington-Barrington Tops fields in Fig. Walcha field Basalts extend over 60 x 60 km and descend from m to m asl.
Alkaline to subalkaline types range in age from mya and include gem-bearing types Sutherland and Barron ; Sutherland et al. Further basalt areas lie 46 Proc. Age data come from Sutherland and Fanning , Roberts et al. Mummel Gulf NP protects extensive old growth forests, which support a large range of bird species, forest bats and small mammals, such as the brown antechinus.
Liverpool Range field This large basalt field 50 x km lies between m asl and its dating and petrology is summarised in Schon Wallabadah Rock is an unusual isolated rhyolite plug chemically similar to, but older than, the rhyolites in other central volcanoes, as it gave a 46 mya age Gibson Coolah Tops NP extends across the main erosional crest of the western basalts; it forms an isolated basalt plateau that preserves tall open forest communities that differ from the forests on other basalt reserves in the district Binns Towarri NP on the southern basalt slopes overlaps three biogeographical regions, the NSW northern Tablelands, Briglow black soil country and Sydney Basin sandstone exposures; these habitats along with Hunter Valley acting as a conduit for migrating species hold considerable biodiversity Hill et al.
Ben Hall Gap NP lies on the eastern basalt plateau across a drainage divide and has outstanding tall old growth eucalypt forests developed on the thick, nutrient-rich basalt soil Mitchell ; it marks the northern limit of the southern cold temperature rain forests and overlaps the eastern and western distributions of many bird species. Many Barrington Tops eruptive events carried up gemstones ruby, sapphire and zircon , which were concentrated in alluvial deposits Roberts et al.
At Barrington Tops, the plateau basalts Fig. Barrington Tops basalt field, showing erosional features, a Plateau surface with drainage headwaters between older 59 mya basalts left and younger mya basalts right , Hunter Springs, b Dissected plateau scarp, northeastern Barrington Tops Plateau, looking from Moppys Lookout. The diverse habitats provide refuge for threatened animal species such as the Hastings River mouse. Mid-NSW basalt fields Scattered remnants extend through the Sydney- central coast area and westwards into the Oberon and Bathurst areas.
Mount Yengo formed a significant mythological feature for surrounding aboriginal tribes as a Creator God, Biamie. Basalt and dolerite remnants in Abercrombie River NP represent former lavas that extended into headwaters of west-flowing paleodrainage systems, while other basalts entered former Lachlan and Macquarie River courses downstream as far west as the Dubbo-Orange area Bishop and Brown ; Tomkins and Hesse Southern NSW fields The Southern Highlands x km and Grabben Gullen fields 30 x 40km southwest of Sydney contain scattered basalt patches with diverse ages mya; Gibson and are mostly alkali basalts with confined flow extents O'Reilly and Zhang Further south, alkaline and subalkaline basalts form flows mya within the Shoalhaven catchment area and were used to demonstrate the relative antiquity of the plateau surface Nott et al.
Some flows are found in Morton NP and 48 Proc. Along south coastal NSW, similar basalt types show younger ages mya; Brown , but have induced differing interpretations of their geomorphic relationships with highland development. To the southwest, basalts in the Snowy field 60 X 80 km are mostly alkaline types that remain as valley filling ridges and plateaus of Miocene flows mya that range in their elevations from m to summit sources up to m asl Sutherland et al.
These basalts have engendered considerable discussion on their relationships to the age and uplifl: Many of the higher basalts are included in Kosciuszko NP and the Tabletop wilderness area while lower plateau basalts lie within Bago SF.
The largest southern field 45 x km is the Monaro field, where alkaline and some subalkaline sequences mya; Gibson preserve important evidence of early vegetation and climatic records Taylor et al. Although some basalts are located in South East Forests NP and some central-northern reserves Conartha NR, Myall NR , the bulk of the basahic soils support grasslands that include a number of preservation areas for endemic species Garden et al.
Among some sixty national parks, most lie on the eastern side of the state Explore Australia , where some 30 of them cited in this survey contain exposures of Cenozoic volcanic rocks. This highlights the important role that this unit occupies within the geodiversity on offer in NSW reservations.
The most diverse range of rocks and landforms appear in the central volcano shields, where contrasts between basaltic and silicic lithologies lead to more pronounced differences in erosional forms and soil developments. This translates into greater variations in vegetation make up and habitats for fauna.
Rainforests tend to develop on nutrient-rich basalt areas while eucalypt sclerophyll stands tend to colonise nutrient-deficient soils on silicic rocks. Nightcap NP, which has the highest aimual rainfall in NSW, supports subtropical rainforest on its basalt soils and warm-temperate rainforest on its rhyolite- based soils.
The lithological nature and topography in the volcanic areas also dictates land use. Areas with rich basalt soils on flatter, accessible terrains with favourable hydrological characteristics encourage agricultural use Brodie and Green, , whereas rugged scarps are often too steep for cultivation. Juxtaposed lithological contrasts in the central volcanoes provide scenic appeal for visitors and with their biodiversity factors has led to their prevalent inclusion within parks and reservations.
Systematic geodiversity The NSW central volcanoes show a general change in their ages from 25 to 12 mya and size from 80 X to 30 x 50 km across with latitude southwards This change provides a systematic base to study their geological and habitat variations, related to climate and variable length of erosion and weathering time. This general rule, however, excludes Belmore Volcano. Here, the absence of basalts led to a reduced shield area and a different erosional history and land use. The older northern volcanoes Main Range-Tweed provide examples of more extreme erosional relief and habitat ranges than the younger southern Canobolas Volcano, where its remaining profile lacks marked internal topographic disruptions.
Two separate central volcano chains formed during their progressive development southwards, giving eastern Qld-NSW border volcanoes, Belmore, Ebor, Comboyne and western Nandewar, Warrumbungle, Canobolas lines. Thisbroughtanother systematic erosional factor into play, the intersections of some volcanoes by escarpment retreat towards the east Australian divide during drainage development Oilier and Pain The Tweed and Belmore volcanoes grew onto the coastal margin so that the escarpment retreat had intersected their positions by mya respectively, but not those of the Main Range and Ebor volcano, which are only now half removed by the escarpment inroads.
The Comboyne volcano remains almost connected to the escarpment and the western centres lack the extreme division of habitats caused by escarpment intersections. Among the basalt fields, systematic differences in habitats can appear where adjoining fields show significant age differences. In southeast NSW, the older Monaro field with more deeply developed soil profiles supports natural grasslands and forests that Proc. Evidence has emerged to suppo rt an event-driven PrEP.
HIV risk reduction among participants taking a f our-pill regimen. However, HIV inf ections. In GBM, taking only four pills per week. In Australia, only daily P rEP is recommended in national. Other behavioural practices, including drug use, were also. Participants wer e asked about their frequency of. Responses to each question collapsed into three. Participants were also asked a bout having had group sex never ,.
Questions included in each of the three scales are shown in. T able S1 in Supplemen tary Material. For each set of questions, a. Initial univariate associatio ns. Odds ratios OR for univariate a nalysis and adjusted odds. Analyses were conducted using. R R Core T e am, , with m ultinomial logistic regression. Participants had a mean age. Cohort characteristics, overall and by PrEP dosing schedule.
No association was found between age a nd preferred PrEP. Participants with education beyond high school. Participants who reported havin g an HIV-positive ma in. While neith er cryst al. In regards to the partner s participants believed pr esented.
W e found that. However , neither the HIV transmission risk scale score. Age [mean SD ] Transmission risk questionnair e score [mean SD ] c 2. High school or less 70 22 54 77 7 10 9 Any university 66 63 36 18 40 Main regular partner , partner HIV status.
No 60 64 35 19 33 Yes, HIV -negative 79 25 52 66 7 9 20 Yes, HIV -positive or unknown status 46 15 34 74 2 4 10 Never 39 80 65 17 14 26 Never 98 31 68 69 16 16 14 Never 60 62 29 17 36 Once per month 49 17 33 67 6 12 10 Never 84 29 53 63 16 19 15 Once per month 81 28 57 70 7 9 17 Main regular partner 58 18 42 72 8 14 8 Other regular partner 50 66 20 13 33 Casual partner 84 64 42 16 54 Group sex 53 63 25 15 37 When invited into this study 20 6 14 70 2 10 4 Private Clinic 93 30 58 62 14 15 21 Public Clinic 70 67 30 14 43 PrEP regimens in their baseline online behavioural survey: Higher levels of education wer e associated with.
Higher levels of education ha ve previously been associated with. Given the established relations hip. TABLE 2 Predictors of pr eferences for event-driven or periodic compared to daily pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP among gay and bisexual male participants.
High school or less Ref Ref 0. No Ref Ref 0. Never Ref Ref 0. Once per month 0. Greatest T ransmission Risk: Sex work client 1. Transmission Risk Questionnair e mean 1. HIV anti-retroviral Questionnaire mean 0. When invited into this study Ref Ref 0. Private Clinic Ref Ref 0. Interestingly , participants with greater belief in medication.
H owever, this was n ot seen in the HPTN study,. Individuals should examine their o wn. Having an HIV -positive. Although undetectable viral load. Given the scarcity of info rmation. W e found no evidence that men with HIV -negative primary. While these partner types can pose a much.
Although crystal methamphetamine use was not found. A recent qualita tive study of. F urthermore, methamphetamine use has. However , there was. With the exception o f France 40 , all countries to date that ha ve. However , the European. One key point to highlight is that a pref erred PrEP dosing. As more informa tion becomes available about non-dail y PrEP , it.
M ost importantly , t he. Participan ts were also not asked about the cost of PrEP. Social desirability and recall biases.
Despit e these limitations, a number. Furthermore, the sa mple. PrEP options may be chosen by s ubstantial and growing sub-. AIDS 30 HIV-negative ga y and bisexual men in serodiscordant relations hips: Uptake of pre-exposure p rophylaxis, sexual practices, and HIV incidence in. Infect Dis 14 9: Barriers to uptake and use of pre-exposure.
BMJ Open 4 AIDS Behav 19..